Revenue Bonds vs. General Obligation Bonds: “Financing Public Projects: Which Path to Choose?”

Municipal bonds, often referred to as “munis,” play a vital role in financing public projects across the United States.

These bonds are issued by state and local governments to raise capital for a variety of initiatives that benefit the community, such as building schools, constructing infrastructure, or funding healthcare facilities.

Essentially, municipal bonds allow governments to borrow money from investors to fund these essential public projects.

Municipal bonds are an attractive investment option for individuals and institutions because they offer tax advantages, relative safety, and a stable income stream.

The interest income from municipal bonds is typically exempt from federal income taxes, and in some cases, it is also exempt from state and local taxes, making them an appealing choice for investors seeking tax-efficient income.

Within the world of municipal bonds, two primary categories emerge: Revenue Bonds and General Obligation Bonds (GO Bonds). These distinctions are crucial as they determine how the bonds are repaid and the security provided to bondholders.

Selecting the right type of bond is a critical decision for governments embarking on public projects.

The choice between Revenue Bonds and General Obligation Bonds has significant implications for how the debt will be serviced, the level of security provided to bondholders, and the potential impact on a government's creditworthiness.

It's essential to assess the unique needs of each project and the financial capacity of the issuing authority when deciding which path to take.

The decision ultimately affects the costs, risks, and success of public initiatives, making it a pivotal aspect of municipal finance and governance.

In the sections that follow, we will delve into the characteristics, advantages, and considerations associated with Revenue Bonds and General Obligation Bonds to assist governments in making informed financing decisions for their public projects.

Municipal Bonds: The Backbone of Public Financing

A. An Overview of Municipal Bonds and Their Role in Raising Capital for Public Infrastructure

Municipal bonds are the financial tools that underpin the vast majority of public infrastructure projects in the United States. They represent a way for state and local governments to access the necessary funds to build and maintain essential community assets.

These bonds are essentially loans issued to governments by investors, with the promise of periodic interest payments and the repayment of the principal amount at maturity.

Municipal bonds can be used to fund a wide array of public initiatives, including but not limited to, the construction of schools, hospitals, transportation infrastructure like bridges and roads, water and sewer systems, and other critical community facilities.

In essence, municipal bonds serve as the financial backbone of local and state governments, enabling them to embark on projects that enhance the quality of life for their residents.

B. The Responsibility of State and Local Governments in Issuing These Bonds

The issuance of municipal bonds falls under the purview of state and local governments, each with its own set of rules and regulations.

State and local authorities have the responsibility to evaluate the funding needs of their communities, assess their borrowing capacity, and determine the most suitable type of municipal bond to issue, whether that be Revenue Bonds or General Obligation Bonds.

This decision-making process involves careful consideration of the specific project's scope, the potential revenue streams it may generate, and the broader fiscal health of the jurisdiction.

C. The Primary Objective of Municipal Bonds: Funding Public Projects for the Benefit of the Community

At its core, the primary objective of municipal bonds is to raise the necessary capital to finance public projects that benefit the community at large.

These projects often have far-reaching impacts, ranging from improving educational opportunities and healthcare access to enhancing transportation infrastructure and ensuring the delivery of essential services.

Municipal bonds enable governments to address pressing societal needs, stimulate economic development, and promote the overall well-being of their constituents.

As such, the responsible issuance and management of these bonds are central to the mission of state and local governments in the United States.

In the following sections, we will explore the nuances of Revenue Bonds and General Obligation Bonds, shedding light on the distinct roles they play in financing public projects and their implications for both issuers and investors.

Revenue Bonds: Funding through Dedicated Income Streams

A. Definition and Core Characteristics of Revenue Bonds

Revenue Bonds are a type of municipal bond issued to finance specific public projects or facilities.

They derive their name from the fact that they are primarily backed by the revenue generated by the project they finance, rather than the general taxing power of the issuing government.

Revenue Bonds are characterized by the following key features:

  • Dedicated Revenue Source: Revenue Bonds are secured by the income generated by the project or facility they are financing. This dedicated revenue stream serves as collateral, providing assurance to bondholders that their investment will be repaid from project-related income.
  • Limited Taxpayer Liability: Unlike General Obligation Bonds (GO Bonds), Revenue Bonds do not rely on the full faith and credit of the issuing government. Therefore, in the event of a project's financial shortfall, bondholders typically do not have a claim on the general taxing authority of the municipality.

B. How Revenue Bonds Generate Funds: Dedicated Income Sources

Revenue Bonds are unique in that they are linked directly to specific revenue streams associated with the project they support.

These dedicated income sources can take various forms, depending on the nature of the project. Some common examples include:

  • Tolls and User Fees: For projects like toll roads, bridges, or tunnels, revenue is generated from user fees paid by individuals or entities that use the infrastructure.
  • Utility Revenues: Water and sewer Revenue Bonds are secured by the income generated from utility service fees paid by consumers.
  • Lease Payments: When a government leases a facility, such as a municipal airport or convention center, the lease payments from the lessee can be used to service Revenue Bonds.
  • Project-Specific Income: For large-scale projects like sports stadiums or convention centers, revenue generated from events, ticket sales, concessions, or lease agreements with tenants can be used to repay the bonds.

C. Advantages and Disadvantages of Revenue Bonds for Issuers and Investors

Advantages for Issuers:

  • Limited Taxpayer Liability: One of the primary advantages for issuers is that Revenue Bonds do not typically burden taxpayers with additional debt obligations. Instead, the revenue generated by the project shoulders the responsibility for bond repayment.
  • Access to Capital: Revenue Bonds provide governments with a means of raising capital for essential projects without tapping into their general funds or issuing General Obligation Bonds, which may require voter approval.

Disadvantages for Issuers:

  • Risk of Revenue Shortfalls: The reliance on project-specific revenue sources exposes issuers to the risk of revenue shortfalls. If the project does not generate enough income to cover debt service, it may require subsidies or other financial support.
  • Potentially Higher Interest Rates: Revenue Bonds may carry slightly higher interest rates compared to General Obligation Bonds due to their reliance on project-specific revenues, which can be perceived as riskier by investors.

Advantages for Investors:

  • Dedicated Revenue Streams: Investors in Revenue Bonds benefit from the security of knowing that their investment is backed by a dedicated revenue source, which can reduce the risk of default.
  • Portfolio Diversification: Revenue Bonds can offer diversification opportunities within an investment portfolio, as they have different risk profiles compared to other types of bonds.

Disadvantages for Investors:

  • Limited Recourse: In the event of a revenue shortfall, bondholders have limited recourse, as they cannot rely on the taxing power of the municipality for repayment.
  • Market Risk: Like all bonds, Revenue Bonds are subject to market fluctuations, and their value may vary depending on prevailing interest rates and economic conditions.

In the subsequent sections, we will explore General Obligation Bonds, contrasting them with Revenue Bonds to provide a comprehensive understanding of the financing options available to state and local governments.

General Obligation Bonds: The Backing of Government

A. Definition and Fundamental Features of General Obligation Bonds

General Obligation Bonds (GO Bonds) are a category of municipal bonds that differ significantly from Revenue Bonds in terms of their security and repayment structure.

GO Bonds are issued by state and local governments to finance a wide range of public projects, and they are characterized by the following key features:

  • Full Faith and Credit Pledge: Unlike Revenue Bonds, which rely on specific revenue streams from a project, GO Bonds are backed by the full faith and credit of the issuing government. This means that the government pledges its taxing power and general revenues to meet its debt service obligations.
  • Broad Applicability: GO Bonds are versatile instruments used to fund a wide array of initiatives, including schools, parks, public safety facilities, and other community-enhancing projects.
  • Voter Approval: In many cases, the issuance of GO Bonds requires voter approval through referendums or ballot initiatives. This democratic process ensures that the community consents to the debt issuance and its associated financial obligations.

B. How General Obligation Bonds Are Secured: The Full Faith and Credit of the Issuing Government

The hallmark of General Obligation Bonds is their reliance on the full faith and credit of the government issuer.

This means that the issuing government commits to using its taxing power and available general revenues to repay bondholders, even if the dedicated project or initiative does not generate sufficient revenue.

In essence, the government stands behind the bond issuance with its authority to levy taxes on residents and businesses within its jurisdiction.

This backing provides a high level of security to investors, making GO Bonds one of the safest investment options in the municipal bond market.

C. Benefits and Drawbacks of General Obligation Bonds for Issuers and Investors

Advantages for Issuers:

  • Low-Interest Rates: GO Bonds typically carry lower interest rates compared to Revenue Bonds because of the high level of security they offer to investors. This can result in cost savings for issuers.
  • Flexible Use of Funds: GO Bonds provide flexibility in terms of how the funds can be used, allowing governments to allocate the proceeds to a wide range of projects or initiatives.

Disadvantages for Issuers:

  • Voter Approval Requirement: The issuance of GO Bonds often requires voter approval, which can be a time-consuming and uncertain process. If voters reject the bond measure, it can delay essential projects.
  • Taxpayer Liability: The full faith and credit pledge mean that taxpayers are ultimately responsible for repaying the debt. In cases of financial stress or economic downturns, governments may need to raise taxes to meet their obligations.

Advantages for Investors:

  • High Credit Quality: GO Bonds are considered some of the safest investments in the municipal bond market due to their full faith and credit backing, making them attractive to risk-averse investors.
  • Stable Income Stream: Investors can expect a steady and predictable income stream from interest payments on GO Bonds, making them suitable for income-focused portfolios.

Disadvantages for Investors:

  • Potentially Lower Yields: Because of their high credit quality, GO Bonds may offer lower yields compared to other types of municipal bonds, which can be a drawback for investors seeking higher returns.
  • Market Risk: Like all bonds, GO Bonds are subject to interest rates and market risk. If interest rates rise after purchasing GO Bonds, their market value may decrease.

In the subsequent sections, we will explore the distinctions between Revenue Bonds and General Obligation Bonds further, examining the circumstances in which each type of bond is most suitable for issuers and investors.

Key Differences Between Revenue Bonds and General Obligation Bonds

A. Security and Repayment Sources

One of the most significant distinctions between Revenue Bonds and General Obligation Bonds lies in the sources of security and repayment:

  • Revenue Bonds: These bonds are primarily secured by the revenue generated by a specific project or facility they finance. The income streams, such as tolls, fees, or lease payments associated with the project, serve as collateral for the bonds. If the project's revenue is insufficient to cover debt service, bondholders typically do not have a claim on the general taxing power of the issuing government.
  • General Obligation Bonds (GO Bonds): In contrast, GO Bonds are secured by the full faith and credit of the issuing government. This means that the government pledges its taxing power and available general revenues to meet its debt service obligations. GO Bonds enjoy the broadest and most secure source of repayment, as they are not tied to the performance of a specific project or revenue stream.

B. Risk Profiles and Creditworthiness

The risk profiles associated with Revenue Bonds and GO Bonds differ significantly:

  • Revenue Bonds: These bonds carry project-specific risk. The repayment of Revenue Bonds is contingent on the successful performance of the associated project and its ability to generate sufficient revenue. Bondholders are exposed to the risk of revenue shortfalls, which may require additional financial support from the issuing government in cases of underperformance.
  • General Obligation Bonds (GO Bonds): GO Bonds are considered among the safest investments in the municipal bond market due to their full faith and credit backing. They are backed by the taxing power of the government issuer and its general revenues, making them less susceptible to project-specific risks. As a result, GO Bonds typically have higher credit ratings and lower perceived risk.

C. Issuing Authorities and Project Scope

The issuing authorities and the scope of projects funded also vary between Revenue Bonds and GO Bonds:

  • Revenue Bonds: These bonds are typically issued by specialized authorities or agencies established for specific projects. For example, a toll road authority may issue Revenue Bonds to fund the construction of a new toll road. Revenue Bonds are commonly associated with narrowly defined projects or facilities.
  • General Obligation Bonds (GO Bonds): GO Bonds are issued directly by the government issuer, whether it be a state, county, or municipality. They are more versatile and can fund a wide range of projects, including schools, parks, public safety facilities, and infrastructure improvements. The scope of projects financed by GO Bonds is often broader and more diverse.

Understanding these key differences is essential for governments when deciding which type of bond to issue and for investors when assessing the risk and potential return of their bond investments.

In the subsequent sections, we will explore the advantages and disadvantages associated with both Revenue Bonds and General Obligation Bonds, providing further insights into their suitability for various financing needs.

Considerations for Issuers

A. When Revenue Bonds Might Be a Better Choice for Specific Projects

Revenue Bonds can be a better choice for specific projects under certain circumstances:

  1. Self-Sufficiency: When a project has a clear and reliable revenue stream that can cover debt service without relying on general taxpayer funds, Revenue Bonds are a suitable option. For example, a toll bridge or water utility project with predictable user fees may be well-suited for Revenue Bonds.
  2. Risk Allocation: If the issuer prefers to allocate project-specific risks to bondholders rather than the broader taxpayer base, Revenue Bonds allow for this risk allocation. Bondholders understand that their investment is tied to the project's performance.
  3. Project Scope: When the project scope is limited and does not require broad community financing, Revenue Bonds can efficiently fund smaller-scale initiatives without imposing a significant tax burden on the entire community.

B. When General Obligation Bonds May Be Preferable for Broader Community Initiatives

General Obligation Bonds may be preferable for broader community initiatives in the following scenarios:

  1. Community Benefit: When a project is expected to provide substantial community-wide benefits, such as building new schools, improving public parks, or enhancing public safety facilities, General Obligation Bonds are often the preferred choice. These bonds allow the entire community to share in the financing of projects that enhance overall quality of life.
  2. Voter Approval: If a bond issue requires voter approval, as is often the case with General Obligation Bonds, it may be more feasible for projects that enjoy widespread community support. Voters are more likely to approve bonds that fund projects benefiting the broader population.
  3. Lower Interest Rates: General Obligation Bonds tend to enjoy lower interest rates due to their higher credit quality. When financing costs are a concern, GO Bonds can result in cost savings over the life of the bonds.

C. Balancing Fiscal Responsibility and Public Benefit in Bond Issuance

Issuers must strike a balance between fiscal responsibility and the public benefit when deciding on the type of bond to issue.

This involves considering factors such as:

  • Financial Capacity: Assessing the government's financial capacity to repay debt and manage potential risks associated with the project.
  • Taxpayer Impact: Evaluating the potential impact of bond issuance on taxpayers, particularly in the case of General Obligation Bonds, where the burden falls on the broader community.
  • Project Prioritization: Prioritizing projects that align with the community's needs and preferences while maintaining fiscal prudence.
  • Risk Mitigation: Implementing risk mitigation strategies, such as adequate revenue projections for Revenue Bonds or securing voter support for General Obligation Bonds.
  • Transparency and Accountability: Maintaining transparency in the bond issuance process and being accountable to taxpayers for the use of bond proceeds.

Ultimately, the choice between Revenue Bonds and General Obligation Bonds should align with the specific financing needs of the project, the level of community support, and the issuer's fiscal responsibility.

Careful consideration of these factors ensures that public funds are used efficiently and responsibly for the benefit of the community.

Risk Assessment and Credit Ratings

A. The Role of Credit Rating Agencies in Evaluating Municipal Bonds

Credit rating agencies play a critical role in assessing the creditworthiness of municipal bonds, including both Revenue Bonds and General Obligation Bonds.

Their evaluations provide investors with valuable insights into the level of risk associated with these bonds.

Key aspects of their role include:

  • Credit Assessment: Credit ratings agencies conduct thorough evaluations of the issuer's financial health, fiscal management practices, and the specific terms of the bond issuance. They assign a credit rating based on their assessment of the issuer's ability to meet its debt obligations.
  • Risk Analysis: These agencies consider various risk factors, including the economic stability of the region, revenue predictability for Revenue Bonds, and the issuer's overall financial strength for General Obligation Bonds.
  • Investor Guidance: Credit ratings serve as guidance for investors, helping them make informed decisions about the level of risk they are willing to accept when investing in municipal bonds.

B. Factors Influencing the Creditworthiness of Revenue Bonds and General Obligation Bonds

The creditworthiness of both Revenue Bonds and General Obligation Bonds is influenced by several factors, although the emphasis on specific factors may vary:

Revenue Bonds:

  1. Revenue Source Stability: The predictability and stability of the revenue source supporting the bond are paramount. Agencies assess whether the revenue stream is sufficient to cover debt service, including scenarios of economic downturns or unexpected events.
  2. Project Viability: The feasibility and success of the project tied to the bonds play a significant role. Credit rating agencies evaluate the project's planning, execution, and potential impact on the issuer's finances.
  3. Issuer's Financial Health: While less critical than for General Obligation Bonds, the issuer's financial condition is still considered. Agencies examine the overall financial strength of the issuer, as it can impact their ability to support the project during difficult economic periods.

General Obligation Bonds:

  1. Tax Base and Revenue: The economic stability and growth potential of the region's tax base are essential. Agencies assess the issuer's ability to generate sufficient revenue through taxation to meet debt service obligations.
  2. Fiscal Management: The issuer's fiscal policies, budgetary practices, and financial reserves are closely examined. Prudent fiscal management enhances creditworthiness.
  3. Community Support: The level of community support, as evidenced by voter approval in bond referendums, can impact credit ratings. High community support demonstrates a willingness to meet debt obligations.

C. How Credit Ratings Impact the Cost of Borrowing for Municipalities

Credit ratings significantly impact the cost of borrowing for municipalities:

  • Lower Ratings, Higher Costs: Lower credit ratings imply higher risk to investors, resulting in higher interest rates (yields) on bonds. Issuers with lower ratings must offer higher yields to attract investors, increasing the cost of borrowing.
  • Higher Ratings, Lower Costs: Conversely, higher credit ratings indicate lower perceived risk, resulting in lower interest rates on bonds. Issuers with strong credit ratings enjoy lower borrowing costs, which can translate into savings for taxpayers.
  • Market Perception: Credit ratings also influence market perception. Higher-rated bonds are more attractive to a broader range of investors, enhancing market demand and potentially driving down borrowing costs.

Municipalities carefully manage their credit ratings to secure favorable borrowing terms and minimize interest expenses.

They do so by maintaining strong fiscal practices, ensuring project viability, and seeking to secure community support when issuing General Obligation Bonds.

Case Studies

A. Real-World Examples of Municipalities Successfully Using Revenue Bonds for Specific Projects

  1. Transportation Infrastructure: The state of California issued Revenue Bonds to finance the construction of high-occupancy toll (HOT) lanes on major highways. The revenue generated from tolls paid by users of these lanes is dedicated to servicing the bonds. This project successfully improved traffic flow and generated a sustainable revenue stream, making it well-suited for Revenue Bonds.
  2. Sports Stadiums: Numerous municipalities have used Revenue Bonds to finance the construction or renovation of sports stadiums. For instance, the City of Denver, Colorado, issued Revenue Bonds to build Coors Field, home to the Colorado Rockies baseball team. The bonds were backed by revenue from stadium operations, including ticket sales, concessions, and advertising agreements.

B. Instances Where General Obligation Bonds Proved Advantageous in Financing Community-Wide Initiatives

  1. School Construction: The New York City Department of Education issued General Obligation Bonds to fund the construction of new schools and the renovation of existing ones. These bonds were supported by the city's full faith and credit, and voter approval was obtained through bond referendums. The projects addressed a critical need for improved educational facilities citywide.
  2. Public Safety Facilities: The City of Houston, Texas, used General Obligation Bonds to finance the construction of new fire stations and police facilities. The bonds received strong voter support, reflecting the community's commitment to enhancing public safety. The use of General Obligation Bonds allowed the city to spread the cost across its tax base.

C. Lessons Learned from These Case Studies

From these case studies, several lessons can be gleaned:

  • Match Financing with Project Scope: Municipalities should carefully align their financing method (Revenue Bonds or General Obligation Bonds) with the scope and scale of the project. Revenue Bonds are well-suited for projects with dedicated income streams, while General Obligation Bonds are ideal for initiatives with broad community benefits.
  • Community Engagement: For General Obligation Bonds, community engagement and securing voter support through referendums can be crucial. Successful passage of bond referendums demonstrates community commitment to financing important projects.
  • Risk Mitigation: In the case of Revenue Bonds, risk mitigation strategies, such as thorough revenue projections and contingency plans, are essential to ensure the project's success and bondholder protection.
  • Transparency: Transparency in the bond issuance process, clear communication of the project's objectives and benefits, and responsible fiscal management are key factors contributing to successful bond issuances.

These case studies underscore the importance of making informed decisions when choosing between Revenue Bonds and General Obligation Bonds, considering the specific needs of the project and the level of community support.

Each financing method has its advantages, and municipalities can achieve successful outcomes by selecting the one that aligns most closely with their goals.

Regulatory Environment and Legal Considerations

A. Federal Regulations Governing Municipal Bonds

  1. SEC Regulations: Municipal bonds are subject to regulations by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). The SEC ensures that issuers provide adequate disclosure to investors, reducing the risk of fraud or misrepresentation in bond offerings.
  2. IRS Regulations: The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) sets rules governing the tax-exempt status of municipal bonds. Compliance with IRS regulations is crucial for issuers to maintain the tax-advantaged status of bonds.
  3. Dodd-Frank Act: Provisions of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act impact the municipal bond market by enhancing transparency, oversight, and reporting requirements, particularly for derivatives associated with bonds.

B. State-Specific Rules and Regulations Affecting Bond Issuance

  1. State Legislation: Each state has its own statutes and regulations governing the issuance of municipal bonds. These laws outline the requirements for bond issuance, voter approval processes, and debt limits. State-specific regulations play a significant role in determining the feasibility of bond financing.
  2. Local Regulations: Municipalities may have their own local regulations that further detail the procedures and requirements for issuing bonds. Local ordinances may affect everything from the timing of bond referendums to the use of bond proceeds.

C. The Legal Framework for Ensuring Bondholder Rights and Issuer Obligations

  1. Bond Indentures: Bond issuances typically involve the creation of bond indentures or trust agreements. These legally binding documents outline the rights and obligations of both bondholders and issuers. They specify the terms of the bonds, repayment schedules, and the remedies available to bondholders in case of default.
  2. Bond Counsel: Bond counsel, legal experts specializing in municipal bonds, play a critical role in ensuring compliance with federal, state, and local laws. They review bond issuances to confirm that all legal requirements are met.
  3. Continuing Disclosure: The SEC's Rule 15c2-12 requires issuers to provide ongoing disclosure to bondholders. This includes annual financial statements and material event notices. Compliance with these disclosure requirements is essential to maintaining bondholder trust.
  4. Bondholder Rights: Municipal bonds are protected by legal frameworks that establish bondholder rights. Bondholders have the right to receive timely interest and principal payments and, in case of default, seek legal remedies to recover their investments.
  5. Default and Remedies: Legal frameworks define the process and remedies in the event of a bond default. Bondholders may have the right to demand accelerated repayment or take legal action to enforce their rights.

Understanding and adhering to the regulatory and legal framework is crucial for both bond issuers and bondholders.

Compliance ensures the integrity of the municipal bond market and safeguards the interests of all parties involved.

It is essential for municipalities to work closely with legal experts, such as bond counsel, to navigate the complex legal landscape surrounding bond issuances.


The choice between Revenue Bonds and General Obligation Bonds is a critical decision for municipalities, impacting how public projects are financed and managed.

These bonds play a vital role in shaping communities and are essential for enhancing the quality of life for residents.

It is crucial for municipalities to approach this decision with careful consideration of their unique needs, project goals, and fiscal responsibilities.

Informed choices ensure the success of public projects and responsible financial management, ultimately contributing to the well-being and development of localities.